Cerebral cortex or the cerebral mantle is the thin (1.5mm to 5mm) layer that occupies the outer portion of the cerebrum of the brain of the human beings and other mammals. The cerebral cortex is mostly formed with 90% of six layered neocortex and 10% of allocortex. Longitudinal fissure that divides the cerebrum into left and right cerebral hemispheres divides the cerebral cortex into two cortices. These two hemispheres are joined by a very important portion of the brain called corpus callosum. Initially these two divisions of the cerebrum are divided into four cerebral lobes and they are frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. This part of the brain is a huge platform of the neural connections in the central nervous system. It plays a huge induction in receiving thought, fear, consciousness, memory, language, perception, and awareness of the human body.
• Cerebral cortex impact factor: 6.308
Structure of Cerebral Cortex
It already has been mentioned that cerebral cortex is the outer portion of the brain. The bluff between two cortices of the cortex is known as plural gyri (gyrus) and the nick is termed as plural sulcy (sulcus). The twines of the surface was appeared during the fetal development before birth and then gets mature after birth with the help of the process called gyrification. The cerebral cortex is not visible from the outside of the human brain because it is sowed in the plural sulci. The cortex layer is made up of the cortical columns and mini columns of the neurons. 14 to 16 millions of neuron exists in this part of the brain.
Location of cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is mostly covered by cerebrum and cortex which is the uppermost area of the brain. This part is former to other parts of the brain; such as pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. It makes up to the 40 percent of the brain’s mass.
This is also a very important task that happens in cortex area. This particular process manages the blood supply to the cerebral cortex. There are both arteries and veins located in this area. Blood that prefuses the cerebrum is supplied by the cerebral arteries. This arterial blood conveys oxygen, glucose and other essential nutrients for the cortex. The main work of the arterial veins is to carry out the metabolic wastes and deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
There are 3 different kind of arteries in the brain; anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. Anterior cerebral artery provides anterior protons to the frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Middle cerebral artery works for the parietal lobe and temporal lobe and posterior cerebral artery supplies for the occipital lobe.
What is the main function of the cerebral cortex?
Cerebral cortex is a very sensitive part of the brain. It maintains connection with each and every organ of the body. As a main part of the central nervous system cerebral cortex is connected to several cortical structures like hypothalamus and basal ganglia. Receiving and sending signals from them through efferent connections. Most of the sensory signals are trampled through thalamus. However olfactory information goes through olfactory valve to the olfactory cortex. Cortical areas of the cerebral cortex is the sensory areas of the brain that receives a processes various information from the senses. Part of the cortex that receives sensory signals from the thalamus is called as primary sensory area. Primary visual cortex provides the senses of vision, hearing and touch. It have already been mentioned that there are two hemispheres in the cortex and both them receives signals from different parts of the body; for example right visual cortex receives sensory signals from the left visual field and the right somatosensory cortex receive signals from the left limbs.
Both hemispheres hold the motor areas of the cortex. There are mainly two areas of the cortex is known as the motor area. First one is primary motor cortex and the second one is premotor cortex or supplementary motor area. Basically primary motor controls the voluntary movements of the body like fine shiver movement of the hand. And the other part of the motor area maintains the left side of the body. There are other parts of the cortex called posterior parietal cortex which guides the voluntary movements in the space and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex which instructs that which voluntary movement is to made according to the rules and instructions or self-made thoughts. Just beneath of the cerebral cortex there are some grey colored subcortical particles called basal ganglia. This part of the brain is responsible for receiving input signals from the substantia nigra of the mid-brain and motor area of the cerebral cortex and sending back signals. They are hugely responsible for the motor control.
Disorders of the cerebral cortex
Did you guys heard about the disease called Alzheimer? Yes this disease can affect the cerebral cortex because of the deposits of both neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Handful of disorders can be resulted because of the damage of brain cells in cerebral cortex. The outcome of the symptoms can be different depending on the area of damage. Apraxia is a disorder of the cortex can cause some unusual performance of motor tasks. Although It is not mandatory that there would be some damage to the motor or the sensory nerve function. The symptoms can be mental decline, confusion in the evening hours and making things up.
Also huge damage to the cerebral cortex can cause depressing disorders like difficulty I decision making, memory issues and concentration problems.
So here I have given some important facts and information about cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex is an essential organ of the body; it maintains the balance of whole body by connecting neural signals. I hope this guide will help you and you would love to go through this.
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